Situation & Outlook Demographic-Economic Narrative Profile
Geographic area: United States

Created 11/21/2012. Next update 12/21/2012. [S&O Profiles & Reports] [Narrative Profile Main] [Notes section]

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1. Population. The United States total population increased from 281,421,906 (2000) to 311,591,919 (2011) -- a change of 30,170,013 ( 10.72%). The median age increased from 35.3 (2000) to 37.3 (2011). The population ages 5-to-17 changed from 53,118,014 (2000) to 53,842,873 (2011) -- a change of 724,859 ( 1.36%).

  Population by Gender/AgeCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Total Population 281,421,906 100.0 311,591,919 100.0 30,170,013 10.7
  Male 138,053,563 49.1 153,267,861 49.2 15,214,298 11.0
  Female 143,368,343 50.9 158,324,058 50.8 14,955,715 10.4
  Under 5 years 19,175,798 6.8 20,067,828 6.4 892,030 4.7
  5 to 9 years 20,549,505 7.3 20,376,779 6.5 -172,726 -0.8
  10 to 14 years 20,528,072 7.3 20,754,531 6.7 226,459 1.1
  15 to 19 years 20,219,890 7.2 21,822,474 7.0 1,602,584 7.9
  20 to 24 years 18,964,001 6.7 22,098,637 7.1 3,134,636 16.5
  25 to 34 years 39,891,724 14.2 41,540,346 13.3 1,648,622 4.1
  35 to 44 years 45,148,527 16.0 40,827,710 13.1 -4,320,817 -9.6
  45 to 54 years 37,677,952 13.4 44,653,387 14.3 6,975,435 18.5
  55 to 59 years 13,469,237 4.8 20,174,311 6.5 6,705,074 49.8
  60 to 64 years 10,805,447 3.8 17,890,890 5.7 7,085,443 65.6
  65 to 74 years 18,390,986 6.5 22,489,229 7.2 4,098,243 22.3
  75 to 84 years 12,361,180 4.4 13,197,352 4.2 836,172 6.8
  85 years and over 4,239,587 1.5 5,698,445 1.8 1,458,858 34.4
  Median age 35.3... 37.3... 2.0 5.7

Census 2010 Population by 5-Year Age Group & Gender with Population Pyramid [
ranking table ... population pyramids]
Age Male Male% Female Female%
  0- 410,319,4273.39,881,9353.2
  5- 910,389,6383.49,959,0193.2
  10-1410,579,8623.410,097,3323.3
  15-1911,303,6663.710,736,6773.5
  20-2411,014,1763.610,571,8233.4
  25-2910,635,5913.410,466,2583.4
  30-349,996,5003.29,965,5993.2
  35-3910,042,0223.310,137,6203.3
  40-4410,393,9773.410,496,9873.4
  45-4911,209,0853.611,499,5063.7
  50-5410,933,2743.511,364,8513.7
  55-599,523,6483.110,141,1573.3
  60-648,077,5002.68,740,4242.8
  65-695,852,5471.96,582,7162.1
  70-744,243,9721.45,034,1941.6
  75-793,182,3881.04,135,4071.3
  80-842,294,3740.73,448,9531.1
  85+ 1,789,6790.63,703,7541.2

2. Race/Origin. Among major race groups, the Asian population increased from 10,242,998 (2000) to 15,020,419 (2011) -- a change of 4,777,421 ( 46.64%). Among 'race alone or in combination with other race(s),' the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population changed from 874,414 (2000) to 1,186,153 (2011) -- a change of 311,739 ( 35.65%).

  Population by Race/OriginCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Total Population 281,421,906 100.0 311,591,919 100.0 30,170,013 10.7
One Race 274,595,678 97.6 302,870,101 97.2 28,274,423 10.3
  White 211,460,626 75.1 230,838,975 74.1 19,378,349 9.2
  Black or African American 34,658,190 12.3 39,189,528 12.6 4,531,338 13.1
  American Indian and Alaska Native 2,475,956 0.9 2,547,006 0.8 71,050 2.9
  Asian 10,242,998 3.6 15,020,419 4.8 4,777,421 46.6
    Asian Indian 1,678,765 0.6 2,908,204 0.9 1,229,439 73.2
    Chinese 2,432,585 0.9 3,520,150 1.1 1,087,565 44.7
    Filipino 1,850,314 0.7 2,538,325 0.8 688,011 37.2
    Japanese 796,700 0.3 756,898 0.2 -39,802 -5.0
    Korean 1,076,872 0.4 1,449,876 0.5 373,004 34.6
    Vietnamese 1,122,528 0.4 1,669,447 0.5 546,919 48.7
    Other Asian 1,285,234 0.5 2,177,519 0.7 892,285 69.4
  Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 398,835 0.1 506,017 0.2 107,182 26.9
    Native Hawaiian 140,652 0.0 156,239 0.1 15,587 11.1
    Guamanian or Chamorro 58,240 0.0 64,192 0.0 5,952 10.2
    Samoan 91,029 0.0 108,849 0.0 17,820 19.6
    Other Pacific Islander 108,914 0.0 176,737 0.1 67,823 62.3
  Some other race 15,359,073 5.5 14,768,156 4.7 -590,917 -3.8
Two or more races 6,826,228 2.4 8,721,818 2.8 1,895,590 27.8
Race alone or in comb. with one or more other races      
  White 216,930,975 77.1 238,197,491 76.4 21,266,516 9.8
  Black or African American 36,419,434 12.9 42,533,817 13.7 6,114,383 16.8
  American Indian and Alaska Native 4,119,301 1.5 5,120,813 1.6 1,001,512 24.3
  Asian 11,898,828 4.2 17,673,522 5.7 5,774,694 48.5
  Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 874,414 0.3 1,186,153 0.4 311,739 35.7
  Some other race 18,521,486 6.6 16,396,503 5.3 -2,124,983 -11.5
Hispanic 35,305,818 12.5 51,939,916 16.7 16,634,098 47.1

3. Households and Families. The number of households (occupied housing units) increased from 105,480,101 (2000) to 114,991,725 (2011) -- a change of 9,511,624 ( 9.02%). The number of families increased from 71,787,347 (2000) to 76,084,006 (2011) -- a change of 4,296,659 ( 5.99%).

  Households and FamiliesCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Total households 105,480,101 100.0 114,991,725 100.0 9,511,624 9.0
  Family households (families) 71,787,347 68.1 76,084,006 66.2 4,296,659 6.0
    Married-couple family 54,493,232 51.7 55,519,648 48.3 1,026,416 1.9
  Nonfamily households 33,692,754 31.9 38,907,719 33.8 5,214,965 15.5
    Householder living alone 27,230,075 25.8 31,886,794 27.7 4,656,719 17.1
      Householder 65 years and over 9,722,857 9.2 11,112,330 9.7 1,389,473 14.3

4. Educational Attainment. The number of high school graduates increased from 52,168,981 (2000) to 58,653,211 (2011) -- a change of 6,484,230 ( 12.43%).

  Educational AttainmentCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Population 25 years and over 182,211,639 100.0 206,471,670 100.0 24,260,031 13.3
  Less than 9th grade 13,755,477 7.5 12,317,606 6.0 -1,437,871 -10.5
  9th to 12th grade, no diploma 21,960,148 12.1 16,771,699 8.1 -5,188,449 -23.6
  High school graduate (includes equivalency) 52,168,981 28.6 58,653,211 28.4 6,484,230 12.4
  Some college, no degree 38,351,595 21.0 43,822,166 21.2 5,470,571 14.3
  Associate's degree 11,512,833 6.3 16,016,175 7.8 4,503,342 39.1
  Bachelor's degree 28,317,792 15.5 36,915,459 17.9 8,597,667 30.4
  Graduate or professional degree 16,144,813 8.9 21,975,354 10.6 5,830,541 36.1
  Percent high school graduate or higher... 80.4... 85.9 5.5 6.8
  Percent bachelor's degree or higher... 24.4... 28.5 4.1 16.8

5. School Enrollment. Total school enrollment for population 3 years and over increased from 76,632,927 (2000) to 83,131,910 (2011) -- a change of 6,498,983 ( 8.48%).

  School EnrollmentCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Population 3 years and over enrolled in school 76,632,927 100.0 83,131,910 100.0 6,498,983 8.5
  Nursery school, preschool 4,957,582 6.5 5,018,930 6.0 61,348 1.2
  Kindergarten 4,157,491 5.4 4,204,314 5.1 46,823 1.1
  Elementary school (grades 1-8) 33,653,641 43.9 32,845,447 39.5 -808,194 -2.4
  High school (grades 9-12) 16,380,951 21.4 17,198,389 20.7 817,438 5.0
  College or graduate school 17,483,262 22.8 23,864,830 28.7 6,381,568 36.5

6. Language. The population 5 years and over who spoke a language other than English at home, but spoke English less than "very well," increased from 21,320,407 (2000) to 25,303,308 (2011) -- a change of 3,982,901 ( 18.68%).

  Language Spoken at HomeCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Population 5 years and over 262,375,152 100.0 291,524,091 100.0 29,148,939 11.1
  English only 215,423,557 82.1 230,947,071 79.2 15,523,514 7.2
  Language other than English 46,951,595 17.9 60,577,020 20.8 13,625,425 29.0
    Speak English less than "very well" 21,320,407 8.1 25,303,308 8.7 3,982,901 18.7
  Spanish 28,101,052 10.7 37,579,787 12.9 9,478,735 33.7
    Speak English less than "very well" 13,751,256 5.2 16,415,236 5.6 2,663,980 19.4
  Other Indo-European languages 10,017,989 3.8 10,847,412 3.7 829,423 8.3
    Speak English less than "very well" 3,390,301 1.3 3,469,801 1.2 79,500 2.3
  Asian and Pacific Islander languages 6,960,065 2.7 9,485,464 3.3 2,525,399 36.3
    Speak English less than "very well" 3,590,024 1.4 4,594,770 1.6 1,004,746 28.0

7. Employment. Total employment (civilian labor force) for population 16 years and over increased from 129,721,512 (2000) to 140,399,548 (2011) -- a change of 10,678,036 ( 8.23%).

  Labor Force StatusCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Population 16 years and over 217,168,077 100.0 246,194,111 100.0 29,026,034 13.4
  In labor force 138,820,935 63.9 157,476,287 64.0 18,655,352 13.4
    Civilian labor force 137,668,798 63.4 156,460,172 63.6 18,791,374 13.6
      Employed 129,721,512 59.7 140,399,548 57.0 10,678,036 8.2
      Unemployed 7,947,286 3.7 16,060,624 6.5 8,113,338 102.1
      Percent of civilian labor force... 5.8... 10.3 4.5 77.6
    Armed Forces 1,152,137 0.5 1,016,115 0.4 -136,022 -11.8
  Not in labor force 78,347,142 36.1 88,717,824 36.0 10,370,682 13.2

  Employment by IndustryCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Civilian employed population 16 years and over 129,721,512 100.0 140,399,548 100.0 10,678,036 8.2
  Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 2,426,053 1.9 2,720,289 1.9 294,236 12.1
  Construction 8,801,507 6.8 8,563,737 6.1 -237,770 -2.7
  Manufacturing 18,286,005 14.1 14,665,712 10.4 -3,620,293 -19.8
  Wholesale trade 4,666,757 3.6 3,894,622 2.8 -772,135 -16.5
  Retail trade 15,221,716 11.7 16,335,831 11.6 1,114,115 7.3
  Transportation and warehousing,and utilities 6,740,102 5.2 6,987,923 5.0 247,821 3.7
  Information 3,996,564 3.1 2,950,890 2.1 -1,045,674 -26.2
  Finance, insurance, real estate, and rental and leasing 8,934,972 6.9 9,233,893 6.6 298,921 3.3
  Prof, scientific, mgmt, admin & waste mgmt services 12,061,865 9.3 15,079,731 10.7 3,017,866 25.0
  Educational, health and social services 25,843,029 19.9 32,601,321 23.2 6,758,292 26.2
  Arts, entertainment, recreation, accom & food services 10,210,295 7.9 13,210,187 9.4 2,999,892 29.4
  Other services (except public administration) 6,320,632 4.9 7,056,697 5.0 736,065 11.6
  Public administration 6,212,015 4.8 7,098,715 5.1 886,700 14.3

Monthly Labor Force Characteristics. The total employment (civilian labor force) for population 16 years and over increased from 155,007,000 (May 2012) to 155,641,000 (Oct 2012) -- a change of 634,000 ( 0.4%).

  Monthly Labor Force Characteristics
Item (seasonally adjusted)May 2012Jun 2012Jul 2012Aug 2012Sep 2012Oct 2012
Civilian Labor Force155,007,000155,163,000155,013,000154,645,000155,063,000155,641,000
  Employed142,287,000142,415,000142,220,000142,101,000142,974,000143,384,000
  Unemployed12,720,00012,749,00012,794,00012,544,00012,088,00012,258,000
  Unemployment rate 8.2 8.2 8.3 8.1 7.8 7.9

8. Commuting to Work. In 2000, the mean travel time to work was 25.5 minutes for workers 16 years and over ( 128,279,228). In 2011, the mean travel time to work was 25.5 minutes for workers 16 years and over ( 138,269,979).

9. Geographic Mobility. In 2000, 45.87% ( 120,347,674) of the population 5 years and over ( 262,375,152) lived in a different house than in 1995. In 2011, 15.20% ( 46,812,394) of the population 1 year and over ( 307,900,319) lived in a different house than in 2010. There are no 5 year earlier place of residence data for 2011.

10. Income. The median household income increased from $41,994 (2000) to $50,502 (2011) -- a change of $8,508 ( 20.26%). The per capita income increased from $21,587 (2000) to $26,708 (2011) -- a change of $5,121 ( 23.72%).

Household income recent change: 2010 to 2011. The median household income decreased from $51,144 (2010) to $50,502 (2011) -- a change of ($642) ( -1.26%). The Gini Index measure of income inequality changed from 0.469 (2010) to 0.475 (2011) -- a change of 0.006 ( 1.279%). See related details:
http://proximityone.com/statetrends_income.htm.

  Household IncomeCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Total Households 105,539,122 100.0 114,991,725 100.0 9,452,603 9.0
  Less than $10,000 10,067,027 9.5 9,004,208 7.8 -1,062,819 -10.6
  $10,000 to $14,999 6,657,228 6.3 6,678,477 5.8 21,249 0.3
  $15,000 to $24,999 13,536,965 12.8 13,137,384 11.4 -399,581 -3.0
  $25,000 to $34,999 13,519,242 12.8 12,153,825 10.6 -1,365,417 -10.1
  $35,000 to $49,999 17,446,272 16.5 15,933,833 13.9 -1,512,439 -8.7
  $50,000 to $74,999 20,540,604 19.5 20,697,584 18.0 156,980 0.8
  $75,000 to $99,999 10,799,245 10.2 13,503,035 11.7 2,703,790 25.0
  $100,000 to $149,999 8,147,826 7.7 13,864,597 12.1 5,716,771 70.2
  $150,000 to $199,999 2,322,038 2.2 5,110,706 4.4 2,788,668 120.1
  $200,000 or more 2,502,675 2.4 4,908,076 4.3 2,405,401 96.1
  Median household income (dollars) 41,994... 50,502... 8,508 20.3
  Median family income (dollars) 50,046... 61,455... 11,409 22.8
  Per capita income (dollars) 21,587... 26,708... 5,121 23.7

Personal Income. Total personal income increased from $12,944,090M (2011Q2) to $13,370,344M (2012Q2) -- a change of $426,254M ( 3.3%). Per capita personal income increased from $41,843 (2011Q2) to $42,910 (2012Q2) -- a change of $1,679 ( 4.0%).

  Personal Income by Component
Item ($ millions; seasonally adjusted)2011Q12011Q22011Q32011Q42012Q12012Q2
Personal income 12,859,95912,944,09012,977,29813,018,27413,236,32413,370,344
  Nonfarm personal income 10.1/ 12,757,36212,843,10712,876,43912,919,00513,126,91313,262,699
  Farm income 10.2/ 102,596100,983100,85999,270109,411107,644
Derivation of personal income       
Earnings by place of work 9,386,4859,445,2319,479,6219,505,4599,688,3759,767,174
  Less: cont. for govt social insurance 10.3/ 912,948917,640919,332921,360941,052946,887
  Employee & self-empl. cont. for govt social insurance 421,084423,712424,396425,980431,700434,524
  Employer cont. for government social insurance 491,864493,928494,936495,380509,352512,363
  Plus: Adjustment for residence 10.4/ 858851841831795781
  Equals: Net earnings by place of residence 8,474,3958,528,4428,561,1308,584,9308,748,1188,821,067
  Plus: Dividends, interest, and rent 10.5/ 2,063,1162,095,7762,101,5002,113,4842,140,2262,187,326
  Plus: Personal current transfer receipts 2,322,4482,319,8722,314,6682,319,8602,347,9802,361,950
Components of earnings by place of work       
Wage and salary disbursements 6,609,8566,646,7686,668,0046,682,5206,815,5306,871,778
Supplements to wages and salaries 1,605,7441,618,1441,627,8601,635,5081,657,4811,668,481
  Employer cont. for employee pensions & insurance 1,113,8801,124,2161,132,9241,140,1281,148,1291,156,118
  Employer cont. for government social insurance 491,864493,928494,936495,380509,352512,363
Proprietors' income 10.6/ 1,170,8851,180,3191,183,7571,187,4311,215,3641,226,915
  Farm proprietors' income 79,55777,89977,74576,14382,51484,086
  Nonfarm proprietors' income 1,091,3281,102,4201,106,0121,111,2881,132,8501,142,829
Per Capita Personal Income (dollars) 41,57141,84341,95042,08342,48042,910

11. Poverty. The percent families in poverty changed from 9.16 (2000) to 11.70 (2011). The percent individuals in poverty changed from 12.38 (2000) to 15.90 (2011).

12. Health Insurance. In 2011, the civilian noninstitutionalized population ( 306,560,685) with health insurance was 260,185,146. Of those with health insurance, 199,870,803 had private health insurance and 93,418,063 had public health insurance. Corresponding data for 2000 are not available.

13. Disability. In 2000, 19.34% ( 49,746,248) of the civilian noninstitutionalized population 5 years and over ( 257,167,527) had a disability. In 2011, 12.13% ( 37,188,115) of the civilian noninstitutionalized population ( 306,560,685) had a disability. Note that the tabulation universes vary between 2000 and 2011.

14. Housing Units & Tenure. The total number of housing units increased changed from 115,904,641 (2000) to 132,316,248 (2011) -- a change of 16,411,607 ( 14.16%).

  Housing Occupancy/Vacancy & TenureCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Total housing units 115,904,641 100.0 132,316,248 100.0 16,411,607 14.2
  Occupied housing units 105,480,101 91.0 114,991,725 86.9 9,511,624 9.0
    Owner-occupied housing units 69,815,753 60.2 74,264,435 56.1 4,448,682 6.4
    Renter-occupied housing units 35,664,348 30.8 40,727,290 30.8 5,062,942 14.2
  Vacant housing units 10,424,540 9.0 17,324,523 13.1 6,899,983 66.2

15. Housing Value. The median housing value changed from $119,600 (2000) to $173,600 (2011) -- a change of $54,000 ( 45.15%).

  Housing ValueCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Owner-Occupied Housing Units by Value 69,815,753 100.0 74,264,435 100.0 4,448,682 6.4
  Less than $50,000 5,457,817 7.8 6,538,986 8.8 1,081,169 19.8
  $50,000 to $99,999 16,778,971 24.0 11,916,860 16.0 -4,862,111 -29.0
  $100,000 to $149,999 13,110,384 18.8 12,230,945 16.5 -879,439 -6.7
  $150,000 to $199,999 8,075,904 11.6 11,437,518 15.4 3,361,614 41.6
  $200,000 to $299,999 6,583,049 9.4 13,511,178 18.2 6,928,129 105.2
  $300,000 to $499,999 3,584,108 5.1 11,306,069 15.2 7,721,961 215.5
  $500,000 to $999,999 1,308,116 1.9 5,850,178 7.9 4,542,062 347.2
  $1,000,000 or more 313,759 0.4 1,472,701 2.0 1,158,942 369.4
Median value (dollars) 119,600... 173,600... 54,000 45.2

16. Housing Gross Rent. The median gross rent changed from $602 (2000) to $871 (2011) -- a change of $269 ( 44.68%).

17. Housing Costs. The median monthly housing costs for mortgaged owners changed from $1,088 (2000) to $1,486 (2011) -- a change of $398 ( 36.58%).

  Mortgage Status; Monthly Owner CostsCensus 2000ACS 2011Change
ItemValuePercentValuePercentValuePercent
Housing units with a mortgage 38,663,887 100.0 49,325,615 100.0 10,661,728 27.6
  Less than $300 255,243 0.7 92,699 0.2 -162,544 -63.7
  $300 to $499 2,149,992 5.6 863,888 1.8 -1,286,104 -59.8
  $500 to $699 4,943,283 12.8 2,644,439 5.4 -2,298,844 -46.5
  $700 to $999 9,612,512 24.9 7,414,830 15.0 -2,197,682 -22.9
  $1,000 to $1,499 11,679,988 30.2 14,024,451 28.4 2,344,463 20.1
  $1,500 to $1,999 5,555,203 14.4 9,935,392 20.1 4,380,189 78.8
  $2,000 or more 4,467,666 11.6 14,349,916 29.1 9,882,250 221.2
  Median monthly owner costs (dollars) 1,088... 1,486... 398 36.6
Housing units without a mortgage 16,548,221 42.8 24,938,820 100.0 8,390,599 50.7
  Median monthly owner costs (dollars) 295... 442... 147 49.8


About this Profile. This profile provides a way to better understand “where we are and how demographic size and demographic-economic composition are changing” for states, metros, cities, counties and smaller areas across the Nation. These data enable us to better anticipate change and plan for the future. The data are important components in the development of demographic projections and how change might impact stakeholders on various issues.

This version of the S&O profile shows demographic-economic characteristics for the year 2000 (based on Census 2000), the year 2011 (based on American Community Survey 2011 released September 2012) and change over that period. The profile provides a unique source of this information in a highly consumable structure supported with tabular detail. The profile also provides the most recent monthly data on selected demographic-economic measures.

The underlying database used to develop this profile is updated monthly or more frequently. The monthly update schedule is shown in http://proximityone.com/whatsnew.htm. The profile has been generated using the ProximityOne Situation & Outlook (S&O). The S&O database is comprised of several databases that are updated on different schedules as new data become available. The profile file name and date appear under the profile title. Data in the profile were current at the time the report was developed. Running this same report at a later date would have different, more up-to-date, content.

This profile makes use of data from ProximityOne, Census 2000, Census 2010, American Community Survey (ACS), Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and other sources.

Usage Notes
  • When "2000" is referenced, the data are from Census 2000.
  • When "2011" is referenced, the data are from ACS 2011.
  • Monthly employment data are from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics; Current Employment Statistics programs
  • Quarterly personal income data are from BEA personal income estimates

Table Notes
10.1/ Nonfarm personal income is total personal income less farm income.
10.2/ Farm income is farm earnings less farm employer contributions for social insurance.
10.3/ Contributions for government social insurance are included in earnings by type and industry, but excluded from personal income.
10.4/ Adjustment for residence is the net inflow of the earnings of interarea commuters. For the U.S., it consists of adjustments for border workers and for certain temporary and migratory workers: Wage and salary disbursements to U.S. residents commuting or working temporarily outside U.S. borders less wage and salary disbursements to foreign residents commuting or working temporarily inside U.S. borders.
10.5/ Rental income of persons includes the capital consumption adjustment.
10.6/ Proprietors' income includes inventory valuation adjustment and capital consumption adjustment.
Government Social Insurance: Employee and self-employed contributions for social insurance consists of the payments by employees, by the self-employed, and by other individuals who participate in the following programs: Old-age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI, or social security); Hospital Insurance (HI) and Supplementary Medical Insurance (Medicare); railroad retirement; state unemployment insurance; temporary disability insurance; and veterans’ life insurance.

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