The Census 2010 Summary File 1 (SF1) contains the data compiled from the questions asked of all people and about every housing unit. Population items include sex, age, race, Hispanic or Latino origin, household relationship, household type, household size, family type, family size, and group quarters. Housing items include occupancy status, vacancy status, and tenure (whether a housing unit is owner-occupied or renter-occupied)." The detailed explanation as to what information is available in the SF1 files can be found in the SF1 Technical Documentation (the description of the SF1 contents is taken from that publication).
SF1 data are being released a state-at-a-time and a list of currently available data can be found at a 2010 census news web site. There is a link on the news site to the data file, but you can go directly to the SF1 data site by clicking here. That web site will display the available states. SF1 data for each state are available in a single ZIP file. That ZIP file contains 49 files comprising: a packing list (PKG); a file with geographic information (GEO); 47 files with data on population and housing (DATA). The DATA files do not contain any geographic information and each DATA file must be linked to the GEO file to assign the data to a county, place, census tract, block group, etc.
The 47 DATA files contain one or more sets of information. The "sets of information" are referred to in the SF1 Technical Documentation as tables. For example, one DATA file (file #1 in each state) contains only one table and that table has only one variable, the total population of geographic areas. Another file (file #20 in each state) with only one table contains the information on the white-only population by gender and age (with 103 age group-specific populations for each gender) down to the census tract level. Many files contain multiple tables. There are a total of 331 tables in the 47 tables and a list of the tables within each file can found in the PKG file. A list showing the range of tables/variables within each of the