Disability Demographics for Small Area Geography
-- ACS 2008-12 5-Year Estimates
People with disabilities bring unique sets of skills to the workplace, enhancing the strength and diversity of the U.S. labor market. They make up a significant market of consumers, representing more than $200 billion in discretionary spending and creating technological innovation and entrepreneurship. People with disabilities also often rely on various government interventions to maintain their participation in the community. Demographic data about people with disabilities help stakeholders better understand needs and make more informed decisions relating to a wide range of topics concerning people with disabilities.
New Disability Demographics
Disability demographics from the American Community Survey (ACS) have been available for cities, counties and larger areas with population over 65,000 for a few years. New as of December 2013, are ACS 2012 5-year disability demographics available for all cities, school districts, counties and geographies down to the census tract level. Disability demographics are often "masked" when analyzed for larger population areas. Masked, not in the sense of suppressed data, but that concentrations that might be identified at the census tract level may become less prominent when viewed in the aggregate of county or higher level geographies. This section reviews disability-related ACS0812 data available for these small area geographies and how they can be used.
Subject matter categories about people with disabilities from ACS generally involve limitations with vision, hearing, cognitive, ambulatory, self-care or independent living difficulty.
Vision -- blindness or serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses
Hearing -- deafness or serious difficulty hearing
Cognitive -- serious difficulty concentrating, remembering or making decisions
Ambulatory -- serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs
Self-care -- difficulty bathing or dressing
Independent living -- having difficulty going outside to shop or visit a doctor's office
Visual Analysis of Disability Patterns by Census Tract
The following view shows the population ages 5-17 years with disabilities (ACS0812 estimates) by census tract for Harris County, Texas (Houston area). The legend at left of map shows color patterns associated with data from Table B18101 (see below).
The above view was developed using the CV XE GIS software with a GIS project. The GIS project includes a county by census tract layer with Table B18101 (see below) integrated subject matter. This particular view shows patterns of the sum of items B18101007 (males age 5-17 years with disability) and B18101026 (females age 5-17 years with disability). View all items in this table by opening excel file B18101 in the scroll section below. Members of the ProximityOne User Group may download and use this project to develop similar views on their computer. Add other geographies to the view such as school districts or cities. Add your own data from any source. Join the User Group now, no fee.
Disability Subject Matter Data/Tables
View the scope of ACS 2012 5-year estimates subject matter using the interactive table at http://proximityone.com/acs0812.htm. Sort on the rightmost column and scroll to Disabilities. These same tables are included in the scroll box shown below. Click a link on the table number to view a sample of the data (an excel file will open). All data tables are provided for Houston ISD (HISD), Texas school district. The same scope of data are available for any school district.
Table B18101 shows that there are more than 9,000 K-12 school age children with disabilities in Houston ISD (3,493 females, 6,133 males). Using the additional Table B18101 iterations, the distribution of this population can be examined by race and origin. Of course, school age children without disabilities can be impacted by other household members that do have disabilities. Demographics provided in these tables show characteristics for the total population and many age groups. Tables B18102 through B18107 provide insights into the number of persons by age and gender by type of disability. Table B18135 provides data on health insurance coverage. Employment status and workforce data are provided by Tables C18120 and C18121. Earnings and poverty characteristics data are provided by Tables B18140, C18130 and C18131.
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Accessing & Using the Data
Access the above tables using the CV APIGateway. Integrate the disability-related data with other demographic-economic data from ACS 2012 and other data sources. Save data for multi-geography such as all census tracts for a county. Merge these data into a county by tract shapefile and use the CV XE GIS software to visually examine small area patterns of the population with disabilities.
ProximityOne develops geographic-demographic-economic data and analytical tools and helps organizations knit together and use diverse data in a decision-making and analytical framework. We develop custom demographic/economic estimates and projections, develop geographic and geocoded address files, and assist with impact and geospatial analyses. Wide-ranging organizations use our tools (software, data, methodologies) to analyze their own data integrated with other data. Follow ProximityOne on Twitter at www.twitter.com/proximityone. Contact us (888-364-7656) with questions about data covered in this section or to discuss custom estimates, projections or analyses for your areas of interest.