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Analyzing Block Group Demographic-Economic Patterns
  -- tools & data to analyze sub-census tract households, education, income, housing, more
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May 2021. Block Groups (BGs), subdivisions of census tracts, are the smallest geographic areas for which "richer demographics" are developed by the Census Bureau. Block group demographic-economic estimates, based on Census 2010 geography, are annually updated beginning with American Community Survey (ACS) 2010. The latest ACS estimates for these 217,740 areas covering U.S. wall-to-wall are from ACS 2019. Next update (ACS 2020) December 2021.

The interactive table below shows characteristics of the more than 217,000 U.S. block groups. More than 845 BGs have a median housing value of $2 million or more. More than 1,929 BGS have a median household income of $250,000 or more. Where are they? How do they cluster? What are related characteristics? Use the table to gain insights.

Using VDA Web GIS with BGs
View block groups, examine geodemographic patterns using the VDA Web GIS
  .. find block groups visually by entering a ZIP code (other ways)
  .. view block groups in context of wide-ranging geography

Location Based Demographics
Use the Location Based Demographics tool to examine block group demographics for a location/address.

Topics in this Section
  • 00 News & updates about block-related developments
  • 01 Use the interactive table below to examine BG demographic-economic attributes
  • 02 Block Group Demographic Economic Estimates & Projections to 2025
  • 03 Census 2010 Demographics for Census 2020 BGs
  • 04 Download Preconfigured ACS 2019 BG Demographic-Economic Data Files
  • 05 Develop Custom BG Demographic-Economic Files using DEDE software
  • 06 Download Census 2010 or Census 2020 BG Geographic, Demographic, Economic Data Files
  • 07 Applications Using Block Groups

Patterns of Economic Prosperity by Block Group
The following graphic shows patterns of median household income by block group in the Houston, TX area. Markers show block groups with 10 or more housing units having value of $2 million or more. Markers are labeled with the number of housing units having value of $2 million or more in that block group. Click graphic for larger view, more detail and legend color/data intervals. This map illustrates the geographic level of detail available using block group demographics and the relative ease to gain insights using geospatial data analytics tools.

- View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

  • Woodside, CA Vicinity similar to above.

Patterns of Economic Prosperity by Block Group -- Encino, CA

- View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Comparing attibutes of three selected BGs in above view .. XLS

Examining Attributes of Tax Parcel in Context -- Encino, CA

- View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Updates -- Block Group Data Access & Analysis Topics (scroll section)
05.21.21. ACS 2019 Demographic-Economic Interactive Table
... the interactive table in this section has been updated with ACS 2019 demographic economic data

10.30.18. Mapping Block Group Demographics
... view step-by-step procedures
... access block group subject matter for specified block groups using menu-based APIs
... develop custom maps and analyses

02.05.18. ACS 2016 Block Group Shapefiles & Database
... ACS 2016 national scope all U.S. by block group
... scope of data shown in above scroll section now available (CSV, XLS, DBF)
... GIS projects & applications
... custom maps and analytical applications available

03.19.16. Citizen Voting Age Population by Block Group
... national scope all U.S. by block group
... GIS projects & applications
... see
     Patterns of low & moderate income by block group

03.08.16. Low and Moderate Income Demographics by Block Group
... national scope all U.S. by block group interactive ranking table
... developing site analysis reports; GIS project & datasets
... see
     Patterns of low & moderate income by block group

01.13.16. Crime Data Analytics
... integrating location-based crime data with demographic-economic data.
... summarizing crime data to block level; integrating ACS 2014 block group data
... GIS project & datasets
... see
     Patterns of crime by location & census block; Kansas City, MO

01.09.16. Linguistic Isolation by Block Group
... illustrating use of tools; Los Angeles County applications
... apply to any county: narrative, GIS project & datasets
... using 2014 ACS 5-year estimates
... see
     Patterns of Linguistic Isolation; Los Angeles County, CA

11.19.15. Relating Block Groups to ZIP Code Areas
... interactive table & GIS tools/applications
... population and area for each BG part intersecting with ZIP code area
... See

08.04.15. Get Block Group Demographic-Economic Profile based on Address
... key in an address and view profile for corresponding block group.
... See

01.29.15. Patterns of Block Group Income Inequality
... data and tools to examine patterns of income equality by block group
... patterns of income inequality by block group; New York city; click for larger view

09.01.14. Census 2010 Census Block Group Tallies by State
... interactive table:
... water and land area block groups; compare with tracts and blocks
... Warren Glimpse blog on this topic ... searchable list of blog posts

Demographic Economic Data Extraction
... Demographic Economic Data Extraction (DEDE) API tool
... extract multi-sourced demographic economic data
... census block, block group and other geography

Census Block, Block Group & Census Tract Pattern Analysis
... Join us in this upcoming one-hour Web session.
... More information. Register (no fee).

Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities
... 10,000+ areas where more than 40% have head of household age 65 years or over

Examining Neighborhood Demographic-Economic Characteristics
... using site analysis tools to select/define neighborhood by block group
... visual & tabular study area demographic-economic summary
... see Scottsdale, AZ example & details

Block Group Demographic-Economic Interactive Table .. goto top
  Data in table based on ACS 2019 (latest data)
  Table includes selected subject matter (see item list below) and intended for use with associated data file
  See Usage notes below table. See related Interactive Tables Main Page

Usage Notes
  Click ShowAll button between queries.
  Sort the table descending/acsending on any column header.
  Examine only those BGs is a selected county.
  Negative values indicate that items for that BG could not be estimated.
  Example: enter FIPS StateCounty code (5 numeric characters) in Find StCty edit box & click Find button.
    .. default value is 06059 (Orange County, CA); click ShowAll then Find StCty to find attributes of BGs in thie county:
    .. there are 1823 Census 2010 BGs in this county
    .. 45 of these BGs have a Median Housing Value($MHV) of $2,000,000 or more (the top-coded value)
    .. in 161 BGs the $MHV could not be estimated (negative value); some likely exceed the $2,000,000 top-code.

Column Headers
ColHeader Item Code Description
TotPop B01001_001E Total Population
Male B01001_002E Male
Female B01001_026E Female
White1 B02001_002E White alone
Black1 B02001_003E Black or African American alone
AIAN1 B02001_004E American Indian and Alaska Native alone
Asian1 B02001_005E Asian alone
NHOPI1 B02001_006E Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone
SOR B02001_007E Some other race alone
TOM B02001_008E Two or more races
Hispanic B03002_012E Hispanic (any race)
Pop 65up B09020_001E Population 65 years and over
PopinHH B11002_001E Population in Households
Hshlds B11001_001E Total Households
HshldsF B11001_002E Family Households
Pop 25up B15002_001E Population 25 years and over
HSGradM B15002_011E High school graduate (Male, age 25+)
HSGradF B15002_028E High school graduate (Female, age 25+)
HsgUnits B25003_001E Total housing units
OwnOccUnits B25003_002E Owner occupied units
RntOccUnits B25003_003E Renter occupied units
VacUnits B25002_003E Vacant units
MHI$ B19013_001E Median Household Income
MFI$ B19113_001E Median Family Income
MHV$ B25077_001E Median housing value
MRent$ B25064_001E Median gross rentue

Block Group Demographic Economic Estimates & Projections to 2025 .. goto top
.. the latest Census Bureau demographic-economic data are from ACS 2019
.. those data are for the 5-year interval 2015-2019 .. centric to mid-2017
.. use ProximityOne BG annual demographic-economic estimates & projections to 2025 with historical data
.. developed for Census 2020 geography
.. estimates & projections for the reference calendar year; not a five year interval (like ACS)
.. now becoming statistically feasible/appropriate to compare year over year change

Scope of Subject Matter - categories
Rooms in unit
Bedrooms in unit
Housing tenure
Year householder moved into unit
Vehicles available
House heating fuel
Selected housing unit characteristics
Occupants per room
Housing value (owner occupied units)
Mortgage status
Selected monthly owner costs
Gross rent (renter occupied units)
Citizenship status
Language spoken at home; linguistic isolation
Employment status
Employment by occupation
Employment by industry
Employment by class of worker
Income and benefits
Families and population in poverty
Housing units & occupancy
Year structure built
Units in structure
Geographic identification; relationship codes
Population and components of change
Citizen Voting Age Population
Age and gender
Households by type
Relationship within household
Marital status
School enrollment
Educational attainment
Place of birth

Item list in Excel file .. requires User Group userid .. join now (no fee).

There are a potential of 317 fields in each BG (up) geographic area record. A subset of these items is scheduled for availability in September 2021 for each Census 2020 BG iterated for each year, 2010 and annually 2019 through 2025. A larger set of the items (richer demographics) is scheduled for release in January 2022.

Census 2010 Demographics for Census 2020 BGs .. goto top
.. the ACS 2019 data will be the last data for Census 2010 BG geography
.. use ProximityOne estimate for Census 2010 and ACS 2019 for Census 2020 geography
.. this enables you to compare Census 2010 and ACS 2019 subject matter with Census 2020 and projections

Download Preconfigured ACS 2019 BG Demographic-Economic Data Files .. goto top
.. the data shown in the interactive table may be download in Excel, CSV or DBF structure:
  buy the ACS 2018 file
  buy the ACS 2019 file

Create/Develop Custom BG Demographic-Economic Files using DEDE software .. goto top
.. being updated

Download Census 2010 or Census 2020 BG Geographic, Demographic, Economic Data Files .. goto top
.. being updated

Applications Using Block Groups .. goto top
Block group gerography has fully covered the U.S. since the 1980 Census. Data are available from each decennial census and annual American Community Survey (ACS) programs since 2010. ProximityOne extends these subject matter BG data with custom estimates and current estimates and projections not available from the Census Bureau.
  • Citizen Voting Age Population by Block Group
    .. expanding neighborhood-level insights through data analytics
  • Relating Block Groups to ZIP Code Areas
  • Patterns of Block Group Income Inequality
  • Block Group Demographic-Economic Profile Datasets
  • Analysis of School District Demographics by Block Group
  • Crime Data Analytics by Block Group
    .. aggregating other data to BGs; associating with "traditional" BG data
  • Linguistic Isolation by Block Group
  • Low and Moderate Income Demographics by Block Group
  • Location-Based Demographic-Economic Characteristics by Block Group
  • Congressional Communities Defined by Block Group Clusters

Related Topics .. .. goto top

Analyzing Block Group Demographic-Economic Patterns using GIS
... Selected metros with drill-down to intersection:
... Chicago, IL:
... Kansas City, MO-KS:
... Portland, OR:
... Washington, DC:

Block Group Demographic-Economic Profile & Related Datasets
... Block Group Demographic-Economic Profile: a selection of 200+ key demographic-economic attributes
... updated annually

Three Decades of Block Group Demographics
... Accessing 1990, 2000 and 2010 Census block group demographics
... Using these data with related block group shapefiles & GIS
... coming soon

Census 2010 Race/Ethnicity Block Group Dataset
... National scope Census 2010 race/ethnicity data by block group
... Dataset developed using S&O Server "All BGs" feature
... See details below in 'About Block Groups' scroll section

Examining Linguistic Isolation by Block Group
... using ACS 2010 block group demographics; interactive ranking table and GIS visual analysis

Site Analysis/Profiles Using Block Group Geography
.. Block group (BG) demographic-economic site analysis profiles; XLS and HTML reports
.. Pick BG(s) by geocode, address or latitude-longitude; cherry-pick or use radius tools
.. View example

Census 2010 Race/Ethnicity Block Group Dataset ... downloadable dataset (scroll section)
The Census 2010 Race/Ethnicity Block Group Dataset zip file expands to the CSV structured file "BG_2010_SF1_P003.CSV". The dataset was developed using CV XE APIGateway. The dataset illustrates the capabilities of the APIGateway. Any set of 1990 Census (SF1/SF3), Census 2000 (SF1/SF3), Census 2010, ACS 2010 and later ACS data tabulated by block group may be extracted/integrated using the APIGateway. Register here for more information about the Census 2010 Race/Ethnicity Block Group Dataset download (mention "Census 2010 BG download" in text section).

The CSV file contains an 12 character GEOID census block group geocode and nine additional integer fields described below.

P3. RACE [8]
  P0030001 Total population
  P0030002 White alone
  P0030003 Black or African American alone
  P0030004 American Indian and Alaska Native alone
  P0030005 Asian alone
  P0030006 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone
  P0030007 Some Other Race alone
  P0030008 Two or More Races
  P0040003 Hispanic or Latino
Attribution should be "developed with ProximityOne CV XE APIGateway, based on data from Census 2010, Summary File 1". These data are further described in the Census 2010 Summary File documentation (section 7). Please send questions/comments.

About Block Groups (scroll section)
Tract-Block Group-Block Relationship
Census Block Groups are geographic areas defined by the Census Bureau for a decennial census. Each block group is a set of one or more contiguous blocks. Block groups are the smallest areas for which Census sourced estimates are developed. Block Groups (BGs) are a "mid-range" geography between census blocks and census tracts. For Census 2010 there are 11,078,297 census blocks, 217,740 census block groups and 73,057 census tracts covering the U.S. wall-to-wall. These geographies have a nesting relationship as shown in the graphic at right. For any given county, Census 2000 and Census 2010 vintage block group areas might differ significantly in terms of boundary, geocode and relationship to associated census blocks and census tracts.

The census block is the lowest level geographic area for which Census 2010 data are tabulated. The census block group is the smallest geographic area for which American Community Survey (ACS) data are tabulated (estimated).

No Census 2010 Richer Demographics. As with all Census 2010 geographic areas, census block group tabulations include Census 2000 "short-form" type subject matter. There are no "richer demographics" Census 2010 data owing to use of the reduced scope questionnaire. In contrast, annual ACS block group estimates of richer demographic are available. The first ACS data for Census 2010 BG geography/boundaries are the ACS 2010 5-year estimates (release date December 2011). These estimates are based on the survey period 2006 through 2010 and thus measures centric to mid-2008.

Comparing Census 2000 to ACS BG Demographics. The first ACS BG estimates were produced as a part of the 2009 ACS 5-year estimates (for the survey period 2005-2009; measures centric to mid-2007). The 2009 ACS BG data (released December 2010) are estimates for Census 2000 vintage block group codes/boundaries. These are the only BG level estimates available to examine demographic change and patterns since Census 2000 (as both programs use the same BG codes/boundaries). The 2010 ACS shifts to use of the Census 2010 codes/boundaries. See also Census 2010 Demographics for Census 2000 Geography.

ProximityOne User Group
Join the ProximityOne User Group to keep up-to-date with new developments relating to metros and component geography decision-making information resources. Receive updates and access to tools and resources available only to members. Use this form to join the User Group.

Support Using these Resources
Learn more about accessing and using demographic-economic data and related analytical tools. Join us in a Data Analytics Lab session. There is no fee for these one-hour Web sessions. Each informal session is focused on a specific topic. The open structure also provides for Q&A and discussion of application issues of interest to participants.

Additional Information
ProximityOne develops geodemographic-economic data and analytical tools and helps organizations knit together and use diverse data in a decision-making and analytical framework. We develop custom demographic/economic estimates and projections, develop geographic and geocoded address files, and assist with impact and geospatial analyses. Wide-ranging organizations use our tools (software, data, methodologies) to analyze their own data integrated with other data. Follow ProximityOne on Twitter at Contact us (888-364-7656) with questions about data covered in this section or to discuss custom estimates, projections or analyses for your areas of interest.

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