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American Community Survey 2018
-- annually updated demographic-economic data to the block group level

Essential data to assess where we are, how things have changed and how things might change in the future down to the sub-neighborhood level. The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey designed to provide annually updated demographic-economic data for national and sub-national geography. ACS provides a wide range of important data about people and housing for every community across the nation. The results are used by everyone from planners to retailers to homebuilders and issue stakeholders like you. ACS is a primary source of local data for most of the 40 topics it covers, such as income, education, occupation, language and housing. ProximityOne uses ACS data to develop current estimates on these topics and 5-year projections.

This section is focused on ACS 2018 data access, integration and use. It is updated periodically. Register to receive updates. See related ACS 2017 1-year section.

ACS 2019 data are available in the fall 2020. Access the corresponding ACS 2019 page here.

ACS 2018 Data Release Dates ... goto top
Statistical Release Dates shows these dates in context of other release dates.
  • 2018 ACS 1-year estimates .. this section ... September 26, 2019
    .. estimates for areas 65,000 population and over
  • 2018 ACS 1-year PUMS data .. November 14, 2019
    .. microdata data for custom estimates and individual modeling
  • 2018 ACS 5-year estimates .. December 19, 2019
    .. estimates for all areas down to block group level
  • 2018 ACS 5-year PUMS data .. January 30, 2020
    .. microdata data for custom estimates and individual modeling
  • 2018 ACS 1-year supplemental estimates .. February 6, 2020
    .. selected 1 year estimates for areas 20,000 population and over

Accessing 2018 Demographics for 116th Congressional Districts
September 26, 2019. This update illustrates use of API tools to access ACS 2018 1-year estimates. We will be adding similar examples for other geography soon. Click this API link to access/download selected 2018 demographic data for all 116th Congressional Districts. The return page shows a CSV-like file containing a row for each congressional district. The subject matter displayed include these ACS 2018 1-year items:
  Item/Field   Description
  CD Name   Congressional district name
  B01001_001E   Total population
  B02001_002E   White alone
  B02001_003E   Black or African American alone
  B02001_004E   American Indian & Alaska Native alone
  B02001_005E   Asian alone
  B02001_006E   Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander alone
  B02001_007E   Some other race alone
  B02001_008E   Two or more races
  B03003_003E   Hispanic or Latino (any race)
  B29001_001E   Citizen voting age population
  B19013_001E   Median household income
  B19301_001E   Per capita income
  B25077_001E   Median housing value
  B25064_001E   Median gross rent
  B19083_001E   Gini index of income inequality
  B25001_001E   Total housing units
  B25002_002E   Occupied units (households)
  B25003_002E   Owner occupied units
  B25003_003E   Renter occupied units
  B25002_003E   Vacant units
  State code   State FIPS code (treat as text, retain lead zero)
  CD code   116th Congressional district code (treat as text, retain lead zero)
Learn more about using API tools to access more subject matter for many different types of geography. Participate in the Using GIS and GeoDemographics Course. Contact us for information on support services.

Importance of ACS: Assessing Demographic-Economic Change
Oil prices plummeted in late 2014. How has this affected people and households in areas hardest hit? Find out for wide-ranging geographies using the ACS 1-year estimates. Compare to earlier 1-year estimates. Demographic-economic conditions change for many reasons; oil price changes are just one.

Reference .. go top
  • ACS 2018 Questionnaire
  • Summary File Technical Documentation
  • ACS 2018 Tables Shells
  • ACS 2018 1-year Sequence Table Lookup
  • ACS 2018 1-Year Appendices

Updates & Applications -- Interactive Tables; GIS Resources; Studies/Briefs .. go top

This sub-section is progressively updated with links to access ACS 2018 data via
  interactive tables, datasets, analytical reports,
  and through use of GIS & analytical tools.

Using ACS Data; ACS 1-Year versus ACS 5-Year Data .. top

While ACS 1-year estimates are suitable for time-series analyses, the ACS 5-year estimates are not the same as annual demographic-economic estimates and may not be suitable for annual time series analyses.

Advantages of using the 5-year estimates
  • the data are available for all census tracts and ZIP code areas.
  • the data are available for all cities/places, counties and school districts irrespective of size.
Disadvantages of using the 5-year estimates
  • the data are older than the 1-year estimates.
  • the data are for a 5-year period rather than one year.
  • additional cautions in comparing estimates over time (see below).

Advantages of using the 1-year estimates
  • the data are more recent than the 5-year estimates.
  • the data are generally more accurate than the 5-year estimates.
Disadvantages of using the 5-year estimates
  • the data are not available for census tracts and ZIP code areas.
  • the data are available for only areas of 65,000 population and over.
  • the margin of error (MOE) of the estimate is normally larger that for the 5-year estimates.

Additional cautions in comparing estimates over time
  • ACS 2012 5 year estimates are based on survey respondent data for the years 2008 through 2012.
  • ACS 2013 5 year estimates are based on survey respondent data for the years 2009 through 2013.
  • ACS 2014 5 year estimates are based on survey respondent data for the years 2010 through 2014.
  • ACS 2015 5 year estimates are based on survey respondent data for the years 2011 through 2015.
  • ACS 2016 5 year estimates are based on survey respondent data for the years 2012 through 2016.
  • ACS 2017 5 year estimates are based on survey respondent data for the years 2013 through 2017.
  • ACS 2018 5 year estimates are based on survey respondent data for the years 2014 through 2018.
  • The ACS 2012 5 year data & ACS 2013 5 year data
      are based on the same respondent data for the four years 2009 through 2012.
  • The ACS 2013 5 year estimates drop 2008 respondents and add 2013 respondents.
  • The ACS 2014 5 year estimates drop 2009 respondents and add 2014 respondents.
  • The ACS 2015 5 year estimates drop 2010 respondents and add 2015 respondents.
  • The ACS 2016 5 year estimates drop 2011 respondents and add 2016 respondents.
  • The ACS 2017 5 year estimates drop 2012 respondents and add 2017 respondents.
  • The ACS 2018 5 year estimates drop 2013 respondents and add 2018 respondents.
  • While 5-year estimates are independently developed annually,
      they include demographic-economic characteristics for some of the same respondents.

Other considerations
  • Are the needed subject matter available from Census 2010?
    - ACS more detailed demographic-economic data (like income) may not be a plus.
  • Census 2010 provides more accurate data than ACS estimates.
  • Often there are more detailed age (and other) breakouts for subject matter in Census 2010 compared to ACS.
  • The most recent ACS-sourced small area data are from ACS 2018 (December 2019) 5-year estimates;
    - ACS 2018 5-year estimates are centric to 2016.

Areas Published ... goto top
... this general description will be updated with specific ACS 2018 geography soon.
... availability of summary statistic data by type of geography
... link in left column provide access to related interactive tables for specific geographic level.
Geography 1-year estimates
65,000+ population
Supplemental Estimates
20,000+ population
5-year estimates
All Areas
numberpercent numberpercent number
United States1100%1100%1
States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico52100%52100%52
County or equivalent /183826%1,91059%3,220
County Subdivision /22261%1,1863%36,630
Subminor Civil Division (Puerto Rico Only) /3N/AN/AN/AN/A145
Census Tract /3N/AN/AN/AN/A74,001
Block Group /3N/AN/AN/AN/A220,333
Place (incorporated places and census designated places)6302%2,3238%29,573
Consolidated City /3N/AN/AN/AN/A8
Alaska Native Regional Corporation325%433%12
American Indian Area/Alaska Native Area/Hawaiian Home Land132%345%695
American Indian Area-Tribal Census Tract /3N/AN/AN/AN/A483
American Indian Area-Tribal Census Tract-Tribal Block Group /3N/AN/AN/AN/A917
Metropolitan Statistical/Micropolitan Statistical Area /451955%91497%945
Principal City of Metropolitan or Micropolitan Statistical Areas40232%78662%1,265
Metropolitan Division31100%31100%31
Combined Statistical Area17198%174100%174
Combined New England City and Town Area7100%7100%7
New England City and Town Area2562%3692%39
Principal Cities of New England City and Town Areas1932%4371%59
New England City and Town Area Division10100%10100%10
Urban Area43512%88125%3,592
Congressional Districts - 116th435100%435100%435
Delegate District - 115th (at Large, District of Columbia)1100%1100%1
Resident Commissioner District - 115th (at Large, Puerto Rico)1100%1100%1
State Legislative District /3, /5 (Upper)N/AN/AN/AN/A1,961
State Legislative District /3, /5 (Lower)N/AN/AN/AN/A4,833
Public Use Microdata Area2,378100%2,378100%2,378
5 digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area /3N/AN/AN/AN/A33,120
School District (Elementary)814%29715%1,995
School District (Secondary)9018%21142%507
School District (Unified)8748%3,00728%10,897

Notes ...
School Districts are for 2017-18 school year.
State Legislative Districts are for 2018 Legislative Session.
CBSAs, MDs, NECTAs are as of August 15, 2017.
1 County equivalents include Alaska boroughs, municipalities, city and boroughs, and census areas;
    Louisiana parishes; Puerto Rico municipios; independent cities in Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia.
2 For 1-year estimates, qualifying Minor Civil Divisions in 20 states only. For 5-year estimates, all county subdivisions.
3 1-year estimates are not produced for this geographic level, regardless of population size.
4 All metropolitan statistical areas receive ACS 1-year estimates.
    A population minimum of 50,000 is applied instead of the standard 65,000.
5 Legislative session year 2018.
* Counts based on geographic area boundaries as of January 1, 2018.
** ACS data are not available for census blocks.

ProximityOne User Group ... goto top
Join the ProximityOne User Group to keep up-to-date with new developments relating to metros and component geography decision-making information resources. Receive updates and access to tools and resources available only to members. Use this form to join the User Group.

Support Using these Resources
Learn more about accessing and using demographic-economic data and related analytical tools. Join us in a Data Analytics Lab session. There is no fee for these one-hour Web sessions. Each informal session is focused on a specific topic. The open structure also provides for Q&A and discussion of application issues of interest to participants.

Additional Information
ProximityOne develops geodemographic-economic data and analytical tools and helps organizations knit together and use diverse data in a decision-making and analytical framework. We develop custom demographic/economic estimates and projections, develop geographic and geocoded address files, and assist with impact and geospatial analyses. Wide-ranging organizations use our tools (software, data, methodologies) to analyze their own data integrated with other data. Follow ProximityOne on Twitter at Contact us (888-364-7656) with questions about data covered in this section or to discuss custom estimates, projections or analyses for your areas of interest.

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